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Volcanology, Climate Change and their Consequences

All things in nature are volatile,
variability is the law of the Universe.
Whatever insularity, immobility are contrary to the laws of the Universe.
(Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Soviet Rocket scientist and pioneer of the
astronautic theory)
It is in the nature of human that he perceives the world as a certain constant, stable, durable, and completely unchangeable, including when it comes to the geography of the planet. However, this is nothing but yet another prejudice. Throughout its very existence, our planet has been changing: frequently, noticeably, and drastically. Furthermore, enormous climat changes have been always going together with changes of geographical landscape. It shall be noted here, that this used to happen not only in the Paleolithic age, but in quite recent years too, such as those of XV—XVIII centuries, sometimes within the life of one generation.
What is the cause of such changes? First of all—the instability of the tectonic processes of the very planet. And here the volcanological factor appears if not as the main one, then as definitely very and very significant. Throughout centuries, the volcanic activity appears as a litmus test for more serious climatic or geological and geographical motions on Earth. In the '90–s of the XX century the world entered to another strip of geological changes. Let's note here, that the previous strip ended in the year of 1815, which became infamous as a year "without summer”, which was caused by volcanic reasons. A long-terming period of lull, which started after it, spawned the idea of stability and endurance of the geographical landscape, and eventually leaded to the appearance of antiscientific theories of global warming and global cooling. Without denying the negative anthropogenic impact on the environment, let's not exaggerate it. Climat changes, great and small ice and greenhouse periods have been observed throughout the entire history of our
One way or another, the already coming decade will lead to fundamental change of the face of our planet. And the harbingers of this are the multiple volcanic eruptions on the vast area from the Pacific Ocean to Iceland.
The volcanos started "talking”, and this is clear evidence of  revitalization of the tectonics already leaded to the disappearance of  an enormous part of the island country of Tuvalu and the appearance of new volcanic islands in waters of the Indian and Arctic oceans. And this process will continue growing: at least ten known to us islands will disappear within the next ten years, and at least as many new islands will appear in other parts of the globe.
But this may seem astounding only at first glance. In reality, even  during the periods of tectonical lull, this happens rather frequently.
But the human memory is so short, that after one or two generations it becomes merely forgotten. Thus, in 1963 Surtsey Island emerged off the Southern cost of Iceland. In the same region, in 1783 between Iceland and Greenland rose the Nyey Island, which disappeared again in 1830.
In 1447–1450 northwestward to the volcanic archipelago of the Azores was discovered and studied the Asmaida Island, which has even been colonized by the Portugueses but due to tectonic shifts sunk in 1555–1556, leaving after itself the rock known as Banet, which existed till the 1810 when it sunk too. Nowadays, this place is known as Miln Seamount.
Of course, there are more recent examples too: thus, by the end of  '60–s two large islands arose near the cost of Iceland: Jólnir and Syrtlungur with the area of more than 25 km². In the beginnings of '70–s they submerged again. What does it mean? First of all, let's not forget that the very Iceland is a large volcanic island, and the probability of a similar island emerging in that region is nowadays higher than ever. That is the tectonics of that zone; that is the
period which now we live.
Nothing unusual there is in the disappearance of islands: the antique Port Royal, capital of Jamaica, lies on the bottom of the sea since the 1692, and till 1960 was considered as a legend, although it was the biggest and richest city of the West Indies. In 1875 near the cost of the large Trinidad Island has sunk its satellite island. Finally, on the bottom of the English Channel most likely can be found several large islands which have been inhabited in the XIII century.
Everyone knows that Venice, this pearl of the Adriatic, gradually goes under the water, but a few people know that this is the third city founded by the Venetians. Spina and Metamuoco, the "mother” and "grandmother” of Venice, are lying on the bottom on the sea. In V–VII centuries this island cities have been prospering, and even nowadays there can be found amphoras, utensil and columns.
Therefore, it comes to classic tendencies—tendencies of the geophysics of Earth. The emersion of dozens of new large islands and the disappearance of many currently existing will take place in a decade. The volcanos also indicate the overheating of the Arctic and Antarctic. One may argue about was was the prime cause for that, but the fact is that even now the Arctic ice cover is ten times smaller than it was in 1994. The Antarctic melts. Its climat becomes more and more mild, and with a huge probability it can be said that within the next 10–15 years the continent's coast will become liveable, equaling the climatic conditions of Greenland or Labrador, which would be, of course, not an anomaly. According to several Arabic sources, the Antarctic has been known before the XIV century, and the Southern Continent certainly had more warm climate. There is nothing unusual in that, as in the same ages the Scandinavian seamen discovered Newfoundland and Labrador, naming them "Vínland”—country of wine. The small Ice Age, which lasted since the 1300–s, ended only in the XVIII century.
Therefore, the planet simly enters to a new season of its geological year. Like the summer is being changed by fall and fall by winter, changes the geological and geographical map of Earth.
© Dr Ilya Pakhomov

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